Window 038 - Charlemagne (restored)
Bottom to top, left to right:
[Spanish Crusades - from Chronicle of Pseudo-Turpin]
• Row 08: Charlemagne prays prior to assaulting Pampulauna (Pamplona); Charlemagne takes the city from Moors.
• Circle 09: Charlemagne builds a church to Saint James, who instigated the crusade.
• Row 10: Crusaders battle Moors; Miracle of the Flowering Lances: the night prior to battle, those fated to die had flowers appear on their lances, proof of their blessed state as future martyrs.
• Diamond 11: Roland battles King Marsile of the Saracens [some sources say batles giant Ferragus/Ferracutus, but the armor does not match].
• Row 12: Rolland kills giant Ferragus/Ferracutus; Ganelon urges Charlemagne to return home to France.
• Circle 13: Rolland tries to break his sword Durendal, then strives to blow the oliphant (horn) to summon Charlemagne (Rolland is represented twice in the scene).